Main Header

Blizzard History of the US

February 2013 Nor'Easter

The February 2013 nor'easter was a powerful winter storm that developed from the combination of two areas of low pressure, primarily affecting the Northeastern United States and parts of Canada, resulting in heavy snowfall, hurricane-force winds, thundersnow, and blizzard conditions.

The first low-pressure system, originating from the Northern Plains of the United States, produced moderate amounts of snow across the Great Lakes region of the U.S. and Ontario, Canada. The second low, originating across the U.S. state of Texas, produced heavy rains and flooding across much of the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic parts of the country. As the two systems merged on February 8, an expansive and intense region of snowfall developed from New Jersey to Maine and inland to New York.

Total snowfall in Boston, Massachusetts, reached 24.9 inches (630 mm), the fifth-highest total ever recorded in the city. New York City picked up nearly 1 ft (0.30 m) of snow. The highest snowfall totals were in Connecticut, where the town of Hamden recorded 40 inches (1.0 m), the highest observed. Many surrounding cities picked up at least 1 foot (0.30 m). In addition to the significant snowfall totals, hurricane-force wind gusts were recorded, peaking at 83 mph (134 km/h) at Cuttyhunk, Massachusetts. Boston experienced a storm surge of 4.2 ft (1.3 m), its fourth-highest. The storm continued on to affect Atlantic Canada after hitting the Northeastern United States.

Watches and warnings were issued in preparation for the storm, and state governors declared states of emergency in all states in New England and in New York. Flights at many major airports across the region were cancelled, and travel bans were put into place on February 8 in several states. Hundreds ended up stranded on Long Island late on February 8 due to the rapidly accumulating snowfall. A combination of strong winds and heavy, wet snow left 700,000 customers without power at the height of the storm. At least fifteen deaths were attributed to the storm.

Read more about this at'easter

December 25–28, 2012 North American Blizzard

The December 25–28, 2012 North American blizzard was a winter storm that impacted the Great Lakes region, northeast United States, and the province of Quebec. At least 16 people died as a result of the storm, and thousands were without power.

Read more about this at,_2012_North_American_blizzard

December 17–22, 2012 North American Blizzard

The December 17–22, 2012 North American blizzard was a massive winter storm that affected the Midwestern United States. Forming on December 17, the winter storm moved across the midwest, forcing schools to close throughout the region. Numerous warnings and advisories have been posted by the National Weather Service for many states, including Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Both O'Hare International Airport and Midway International Airport in Chicago, Illinois canceled most departures and arrivals. According to flight tracking website, more than 1,000 flights were canceled across the region. More than 130,000 customers are without power across the west and midwest.

In addition to snow, strong thunderstorms and possible tornadoes went across the Southern United States. A multiple-car pileup on Interstate 35 in Fort Dodge, Iowa killed two people, according to the Iowa State Patrol. American Airlines, American Eagle Airlines, and Southwest Airlines collectively canceled a total of 573 flights in the midwest. Greyhound Lines also canceled service in Chicago, Minneapolis, and Indianapolis.

The storm moved east towards the Northeast and New England. Winter storm and blizzard warnings were issues from north New York to western Pennsylvania.

Read more about this at,_2012_North_American_blizzard

November 2012 Nor'Easter

From November 7 to November 10, 2012, a nor'easter brought significant early season snow to the Northeastern United States. Much of New Jersey, New York, and other areas affected by Hurricane Sandy were affected by the storm as well.

Read more about this at'easter

2011 Halloween Nor'Easter

The 2011 Halloween nor'easter, sometimes referred to as Storm 'Alfred', was a large low pressure area that produced unusually early snowfall across the northeastern United States and the Canadian Maritimes. It formed early on October 29 along a cold front to the southeast of the Carolinas. As it moved up the East Coast, its associated snowfall broke records in at least 20 cities for total accumulations, resulting in a rare "white Halloween" two days later.

Snow fell on trees that were often still in leaf, adding extra weight. Trees and branches that collapsed under it caused considerable damage, particularly to power lines. In the case of Western Massachusetts, where the 2011 New England tornado outbreak and Hurricane Irene hit, trees were already weakened from these previous record setting storms. As a result, power outages occurred in 12 states and three Canadian provinces; in some, particularly Connecticut, they lasted throughout the next week. In some areas the number of downed trees and length and extent of the blackouts broke records set just two months earlier by Hurricane Irene. Many communities had to postpone celebrations of Halloween from two days to a week later as a result, or cancel them entirely. Delays in restoring power led to the resignation of the CEO of Connecticut Light & Power amid widespread criticism of the company's mishandling of both the nor'easter and Irene.

Read more about this at'easter

January 31 – February 2, 2011 North American Blizzard

The January 31 – February 2, 2011 North American winter storm, also called the 2011 Groundhog Day Blizzard, was a powerful and historic winter storm, situated around the US and Canadian holiday Groundhog Day. In the initial stages of the storm, some meteorologists predicted that the system would affect over 100 million people in the United States. The storm brought cold air, heavy snowfall, blowing snow, and mixed precipitation on a path from New Mexico and northern Texas to New England and Eastern Canada. The Chicago area saw between 1 and 2 feet of snow and blizzard conditions, with winds of over 60 mph. With such continuous winds, the Blizzard kept going north and affected Eastern and Atlantic Canada. The most notable area affected in Canada was Toronto and the Greater Toronto Area. Blizzard conditions affected many other large cities along the storm's path, including Tulsa, Oklahoma City, Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, El Paso, Las Cruces, Des Moines, Milwaukee, Detroit, Indianapolis, Dayton, Cleveland, New York, New York's Capital District, and Boston. Many other areas not normally used to extreme winter conditions, including Albuquerque, Dallas and Houston, experienced significant snowfall or ice accumulation. The National Weather Service in Central Illinois issued their 4th "Blizzard Warning" in the entire forecast office's 16 year history. Snowfall amounts of 20 to 28 inches were forecast for much of Northern and Western Illinois.

An ice storm ahead of the winter storm's warm front also brought hazardous conditions to much of the American Midwest and New England, and many areas saw well over 1 in (2.5 cm) of ice accumulation. Numerous power outages, flight cancellations, airport closures, road closures, roof collapses, rail and bus cancellations, mail stoppages, and school, government, and business closures took place ahead of and after the storm; many of these disruptions lasted several days. Several tornado touchdowns were reported in Texas and a tornado watch was issued for parts of Alabama, ahead of the cold front in the warm sector of the storm. In addition, thundersnow was recorded at some locations, increasing the overall snowfall rate. At least 24 deaths were reported to be related to the storm, many of them in shoveling or auto-related incidents. The total damages from the ice storm alone may exceed $1 billion USD.

Read more about this at,_2011_North_American_blizzard

December 2010 North American Blizzard

The December 2010 North American blizzard was a major nor'easter and historic blizzard affecting the United States from portions of northern Florida to Maine and portions of Canada on December 26–27, 2010. It was the first significant winter storm of the 2010–11 winter season and the fifth North American blizzard of 2010. The storm affected the northeast megalopolis, which includes major cities such as Norfolk, Philadelphia, Newark, New York City, Hartford, Providence, and Boston. The storm brought between 12 and 32 inches (30 and 81 cm) of snow in many of these areas and was rated a Category 3 ("Major") on the Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale.

Read more about this at

February 25–27, 2010 North American Blizzard

The February 25–27, 2010 North American blizzard (also known as the "Snowicane") was a winter storm and severe weather event that occurred in the Mid-Atlantic and New England regions of the United States between February 24–26, 2010. This was the fourth major snowstorm of the season for some of these areas, and the third Category 3 ("Major") storm on the Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale in February (See February 5–6, 2010 North American blizzard, February 9–10, 2010 North American blizzard). The storm dropped its heaviest snow of 12 to 24 inches (30 to 61 cm) (locally as much as 36 inches (91 cm)) across a wide area of interior New England, New York, and Pennsylvania. The storm also brought flooding rains to coastal sections of New England, with some areas experiencing as much as 4 inches (10 cm). Aside from precipitation, the Nor'easter brought hurricane-force sustained winds to coastal New England.

This storm was a complex combination of multiple systems, including an upper air low from the northern Great Plains states, and a surface low from the Gulf Coast states. As the surface low tracked northeast from the coast of North Carolina, the upper air low transferred its energy to it, eventually enabling the new storm to undergo rapid intensification near the shore of eastern Long Island. A strong blocking regime of high pressure over the Canadian Maritime provinces prevented the storm system from exiting to the east. This resulted in a cutoff low (not influenced by the predominant jet stream currents), which took a highly unusual track, retrograding west into New York state before looping back out to sea.[

Read more about this at,_2010_North_American_blizzard

February 9–10, 2010 North American Blizzard

The February 9–10, 2010 North American blizzard was a Category 3 ("Major") winter storm and severe weather event that afflicted the Midwest, Mid-Atlantic and New England regions of the United States between February 9–11, 2010, affecting some of the same regions that had experienced a historic Nor'easter three days prior. The storm brought 10 to 20 inches (25 to 51 cm) of snow across a wide swath from Washington, DC to New York City, with parts of the Baltimore metro area receiving more than 20 inches (51 cm). This storm began as a classic "Alberta Clipper", starting out in Canada and then moving southeast, and finally curving northeast while rapidly intensifying off the New Jersey coast, forming an eye. The National Weather Service, in an interview with The Baltimore Sun's weather reporter Frank Roylance, likened this storm to a Category 1 hurricane. Forecasters told Roylance that "Winds topped 58 mph over part of the Chesapeake Bay, and 40 mph gusts were common across the region as the storm's center deepened and drifted slowly along the mid-Atlantic coast". This storm system, in conjunction with the first storm 3 days prior, has been nicknamed Snoverkill

Read more about this at,_2010_North_American_blizzard

February 5–6, 2010 North American Blizzard

The February 5–6, 2010 North American blizzard, referred to at the time as Snowmageddon, was a Category 3 ("major") nor'easter and severe weather event. The storm's center tracked from Baja California Sur on February 2nd, 2010 to the North Carolina Atlantic coast on February 6, 2010, before heading east out into the Atlantic. Effects were felt to the north and west of this track in northern Mexico, California, and the Southwestern, Midwestern, Southeastern, and most notably Mid-Atlantic States. Severe weather, including extensive flooding and landslides in Mexico, and historic snowfall totals in every one of the Mid-Atlantic states, brought deaths to Mexico, New Mexico, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Maryland.

Most crippling was the widespread 20 to 35 in (50 to 90 cm) of snow dropped across southern Pennsylvania, the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia, northern Virginia, Washington, D.C., Maryland, Delaware, and southern New Jersey, bringing air and Interstate Highway travel to a halt. While rail service south and west of Washington, D.C. was suspended, rail travel between D.C. and Boston was available with limited service. Blizzard conditions were reported in a relatively small area of Maryland, but near-blizzard conditions occurred across much of the Mid-Atlantic region.

This event was the second of four nor'easters during the 2009-2010 winter that brought heavy snow to enough of the Northeast's population to be numerically recognized by NOAA's NESIS intensity rating. The first and third of these systems, the December 2009 Nor'Easter and the February 9–10, 2010 North American blizzard, respectively, combined with this event to bring the snowiest winter on record to much of the Mid-Atlantic. Additionally, this event was the second of three major Mid-Atlantic snowstorms that occurred over a 12-day period; each subsequent storm focused its heaviest snow slightly farther north: the January 30, 2010 storm (not recognized by NESIS) dropped more than a foot of snow across Virginia and the lower Chesapeake Bay region, while the February 9–10, 2010 North American blizzard bulls-eyed the Maryland-Pennsylvania border with as much as 28 inches.

Read more about this at,_2010_North_American_blizzard

2009 North American Christmas Blizzard

The 2009 North American Christmas blizzard was a winter storm and severe weather event affecting the Midwestern United States, Great Plains, Southeastern United States, Eastern Seaboard and parts of Ontario. The storm started on December 22, was reported to have claimed at least 21 lives, and disrupted air travel during the Christmas travel season. In the Southeastern and Central United States, there were 27 reported tornadoes on December 23–24.

Read more about this at

North American Blizzard of 2009

The North American blizzard of 2009 was a Category 2 ("significant") nor'easter that formed over the Gulf of Mexico in December 2009 and became a major snowstorm for the East Coast of the United States and Canadian Atlantic provinces. The snowstorm brought record-breaking December snowfall totals to Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia.

The blizzard disrupted several regions, and in some areas the snowfall rate prevented snow plows from maintaining the roads. The blizzard caused flights and trains to be canceled, and left areas without power. Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and New Castle and Kent counties in Delaware declared a state of emergency. Seven deaths were reported to have been caused by the storm.

Read more about this at

North American Blizzard of 2008

The North American blizzard of 2008 was a winter storm that struck most of southern and eastern North America from March 6 to March 10, 2008. The storm was most notable for a major winter storm event from Arkansas to Quebec. It also produced severe weather across the east coast of the United States with heavy rain, damaging winds and tornadoes, causing locally significant damage. The hardest hit areas by the wintry weather were from the Ohio Valley to southern Quebec where up to a half a meter of snow fell locally including the major cities of Columbus, Ohio, Cleveland, Ohio, and Ottawa, Ontario. For many areas across portions of the central United States, Ontario and Quebec, it was the worst winter storm in the past several years. The severe weather and its aftermath caused at least 17 deaths across four US states and three Canadian provinces, while hundreds others were injured mostly in weather-related accidents and tornadoes.

Read more about this at

February 2007 North America Blizzard

The February 2007 North America Winter Storm (otherwise referred to as the Valentine's Day Blizzard or Valentine's Day Storm) was a massive winter storm that affected most of the eastern half of North America, starting on February 12, 2007 and peaking on Valentine's Day, February 14. The storm produced heavy snowfalls across the midwestern United States from Nebraska to Ohio and produced similar conditions across parts of the northeastern United States, and into Canada in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. Significant sleet and freezing rain fell across the southern Ohio Valley and affected portions of the east coast of the United States, including the cities of Boston, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., New York City and Philadelphia.

The southern portion of the storm produced severe thunderstorms with numerous tornadoes reported. One tornado hit a subdivision of New Orleans that was still recovering from the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region in August 2005. In total, this storm system was responsible for 37 deaths across 13 U.S. states and Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec. The NOAA classified the storm as a Category 3 "Major" storm. The National Weather Service has determined that this storm was one of the three largest snowstorms to hit the inland areas of the northeastern United States since 1940.

Read more about this at

Colorado Holiday Blizzards (2006–2007)

The Holiday Blizzards were major storms occurring in two segments during the last two weeks of December 2006 in the Denver, Colorado area. The blizzards occurred within a week of each other. A subsequent storm, smaller in scope, struck the area less than week after the second blizzard, further hampering removal efforts and travel in the region.

Read more about this at

North American Blizzard of 2006

The Blizzard of 2006 was a nor'easter that began on the evening of February 11, 2006. It dumped heavy snow across the Northeast United States from Virginia to Maine through the early evening of February 12 and ended in Atlantic Canada on February 13. The major northeast cities from Baltimore to Boston received at least a foot of snow, with an all-time largest amount of 26.9 inches (68.3 cm) in New York City, the most since at least 1869, the start of record keeping.

Read more about this at

North American Blizzard of 2005

The North American blizzard of 2005 was a three-day storm that affected large areas of the northern United States, dropping more than 3 feet (0.9 m) of snow in parts of southeastern Massachusetts, as well as much of the Boston metropolitan area. While this was by far the hardest hit region, it was also a significant snowstorm for the Philadelphia and New York City areas, which both suffered occasional blizzard conditions and 12-15 inch (30-38 cm) snow accumulations. It was rated a Category 4 ("Crippling") on the Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale.

The storm began dropping snow on the upper Midwest on Thursday, January 20, 2005. It slowly moved eastward affecting the Great Lakes region and the Mid-Atlantic states on Friday and Saturday, January 21 and January 22, 2005. On Saturday evening the storm entered the Southern New England area. The strength of the storm, coupled with the extreme Arctic temperatures, created a light, fluffy snow which increased the snowfall totals.

The storm shut down Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts and T. F. Green Airport in Rhode Island, while also impairing travel throughout much of Massachusetts due to the high amount of snow covering the roads. Practically all schools in the Metrowest and South East regions of Massachusetts were closed for at least two days. Cape Cod Community College, as well as all public schools on Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket were closed for up to a week.

After traveling across the Atlantic Ocean, the storm system hit parts of Great Britain and Ireland and the Scandinavian peninsula, causing even more widespread blackouts and a small number of deaths in the region.

Read more about this at

North American Blizzard of 2003

The Blizzard of 2003, also known as the Presidents' Day Storm II or simply PDII, was a historical and record-breaking snowstorm on the East Coast of the United States and Canada, which lasted from February 14 to February 19, 2003. It spread heavy snow across the major cities of the Northeastern US, making it the defining snowstorm of the very snowy winter of 2002-2003. All cities from Washington DC to Boston were covered in 15 to 36 inches (38-91 cm) of snow, and those cities were brought to a standstill due to problems caused by temperatures and the snow. In Baltimore and Boston, this was the biggest snowstorm on record, with 28.2 and 27.5 inches, (71.6 and 69.9 cm) respectively.

Read more about this at

January 25, 2000 Southeastern United States Winter Storm

The Blizzard of 2000 was one of the most powerful winter storms on record in parts of North Carolina. The storm hit Central Virginia on January 25, 2000 causing thousands of power outages within the area and dumped 11 inches at Richmond, VA. The dissipation occurred before it could hit Northern Virginia. The storm moved into the Atlantic accumulating a record of 20.3 inches (52 cm). This storm is the only storm on record which has had a more significant accumulation of snowfall than in the northern territories. The storm was poorly forecasted, resulting in thousands of power outages.

Read more about this at,_2000_Southeastern_United_States_winter_storm

North American Blizzard of 1999

The Blizzard of 1999 was a strong winter snowstorm which struck the Midwest United States and portions of eastern Canada, hitting hardest in Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Ontario and Quebec dumping as much as 60 cm (2 feet) of snow in many areas. Chicago received a recorded 21.6 in (55 cm). The storm hit just after New Year's Day, between January 2 and January 4, 1999. Travel was severely disrupted throughout the areas and the cities of Chicago and Toronto were also paralyzed. Additionally, record low temperatures were measured in many towns in the days immediately after the storm (January 4 - January 8).

Read more about this at

April Fool's Day Blizzard of 1997

The April Fool's Day Blizzard was a major winter storm in the Northeastern United States on March 31 and April 1, 1997. The storm dumped rain, sleet, and snow from Maryland to Maine leaving hundreds of thousands without power and as much as three feet of snow on the ground.

Due to the date many people took warnings of the storm less than seriously Plows had already begun to be put away for the summer and hardware stores had to sell shovels again even though they already had out patio furniture. One commuter called it "Mother Nature's April Fools' Joke.

Read more about this at's_Day_Blizzard

North American Blizzard of 1996

The Blizzard of 1996 was a severe nor'easter that paralyzed the U.S. East Coast with up to 4 feet (1.2 m) of wind-driven snow from January 6 to January 8, 1996. It was followed by another storm on January 12th, then unusually warm weather and torrential rain which caused rapid melting and river flooding.

Read more about this at

1993 Storm of the Century

The Storm of the Century, also known as the '93 Superstorm, or the (Great) Blizzard of 1993, was a large cyclonic storm that formed over the Gulf of Mexico on March 12, 1993, and dissipated in the North Atlantic Ocean on March 15. It is unique for its intensity, massive size and wide-reaching effect. At its height, the storm stretched from Canada towards Central America, but its main impact was on the Eastern United States and Cuba. The cyclone moved through the Gulf of Mexico, and then through the Eastern United States before moving into Canada. Areas as far south as central Alabama and Georgia received 6 to 8 inches (15 to 20 cm) of snow and areas such as Birmingham, Alabama, received up to 12 inches (30 cm) with isolated reports of 16 inches (41 cm). Even the Florida Panhandle reported up to 4 inches (10 cm), with hurricane-force wind gusts and record low barometric pressures. Between Louisiana and Cuba, hurricane-force winds produced high storm surges across northwestern Florida, which along with scattered tornadoes killed dozens of people. Record cold temperatures were seen across portions of the South and East in the wake of this storm. In the United States, the storm was responsible for the loss of electric power to over 10 million customers. It is purported to have been directly experienced by nearly 40 percent of the country's population at that time. A total of 310 people, including 10 from Cuba, perished during this storm.

Read more about this at

December 1992 Nor'Easter

The December 1992 nor'easter produced record high tides and snowfall across the northeastern United States. It developed as a low pressure area on December 10 over Virginia, and for two days it remained over the Mid-Atlantic states before moving offshore. In Maryland, the snowfall unofficially reached 48 in (1,200 mm); if verified, the total would have been the highest in the state's history. About 120,000 people were left without power in the state due to high winds. Along the Maryland coast, the storm was less severe than the Perfect Storm in the previous year, although the strongest portion of the storm remained over New Jersey for several days. In the state, winds reached 80 mph (130 km/h) in Cape May, and tides peaked at 10.4 ft (3.2 m) in Perth Amboy. The combination of high tides and 25 ft (7.6 m) waves caused the most significant flooding in the state since the Ash Wednesday Storm of 1962. Several highways and portions of the New York City Subway and Port Authority Trans-Hudson systems were closed due to the storm. Throughout New Jersey, the nor'easter damaged about 3,200 homes and caused an estimated $750 million in damage (1992 USD).

The nor'easter increased tides across the northeastern United States for several days due to its slow movement. In New York City, tides reached 8.04 ft (2.45 m) at Battery Park, which flooded Franklin D. Roosevelt East River Drive. Along Long Island, the nor'easter destroyed over 130 homes and left 454,000 people without power. In New England, 230,684 people lost power during the storm. Five houses were destroyed in Massachusetts, and flooding reached 5 ft (1.5 m) deep in Boston. Further inland, the storm produced significant snowfall, estimated at around 4 ft (1.2 m) in The Berkshires. The high snow totals closed schools for a week in western Massachusetts. Overall, the storm caused between $1–2 billion in damage (1992 USD) and 19 deaths, of which four were directly related to the storm. In March of the following year, the Storm of the Century caused worse damage across a larger region of the eastern United States.

Read more about this at'easter

1991 Halloween Blizzard

The Halloween Blizzard was a period of heavy snowfall and ice accumulation that affected parts of the Upper Midwest of the United States, from October 31 to November 3, 1991. Over the last week of October 1991 a large storm system over the Atlantic Ocean (1991 Perfect Storm) blocked most of the weather patterns over the eastern half of the United States, and in turn moisture from the Gulf of Mexico was funneled straight northward over the affected region. By the time the precipitation stopped falling many cities in the eastern half of Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin had witnessed record early-season snowfall accumulations, while parts of southern Minnesota and northern Iowa were crippled by a large ice storm. Arctic air that was pulled southward behind the storm had combined with the heavy snow pack to produce many record low temperatures. Between the blizzard and the ice storm 22 people were killed and over 100 were injured. Meteorologists studying this event and the concurrent "Perfect Storm" have reached a general consensus that both events were actually one immense and unprecedented single weather event. Taken together, they are the largest single weather event of their kind on record.

Read more about this at

Chicago Blizzard of 1979

The Chicago Blizzard of 1979 was a major blizzard that affected northern Illinois and northwest Indiana, U.S. on January 13 – January 14, 1979. 16.5 inches (41.9 cm) of snow fell on January 13 alone, setting a new record for snow in one calendar day. By the end of January 14, 18.8 inches (47.8 cm) of snow had fallen.

The cold weather and snowfall throughout the rest of January and February resulted in frozen tracks throughout the Chicago 'L' system. Commuters crowded onto CTA buses, quickly overwhelming capacity, resulting in usual bus commutes of 30-45 minutes taking up to several hours. To avoid huge snowdrifts in the streets, the overcrowded buses were obliged to take numerous detours, adding additional time to the commute. Deployment of plows was significantly delayed and when they finally appeared they struggled to keep up with the snowfall. Much of the snow remained unremoved throughout the next 2 months, causing ongoing public transit delays and significant problems with trash collection.

The city's inadequate response to the blizzard was blamed primarily on mayor Michael Bilandic, who had assumed the post after the 1976 death of Richard J. Daley. Newspaper articles at the time blasted Bilandic; Jane Byrne, Bilandic's main political rival in the Democratic primary (who had previously worked with Bilandic in the Daley administration and been fired by Bilandic when the two could not get along), capitalized on this and went on to defeat Bilandic in the February 27 primary.

Read more about this at

Northeastern United States Blizzard of 1978

The Northeastern United States blizzard of 1978[1][2] was a catastrophic and historic nor'easter that brought blizzard conditions to the New England region of the United States, New Jersey and the New York metropolitan area. The "Blizzard of '78" formed on February 5, 1978 (a Sunday) and broke up on February 7, 1978. Snowfall occurred primarily between Monday morning, February 6 and the evening of Tuesday, February 7. Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts were particularly hard hit by this storm.

Boston received a record 27.1 inches (69 cm) of snow; Providence, Rhode Island, also broke a record, with 27.6 inches (70 cm) of snow; Atlantic City broke an all-time storm accumulation with 20.1 inches (51 cm). Nearly all economic activity was disrupted in the worst-hit areas. The storm killed approximately 100 people in the Northeast and injured around 4,500. The storm also caused over US$520 million (US$1.85 billion in present terms) in damage.

Read more about this at

Great Blizzard of 1978

The Great Blizzard of 1978 was a historic winter storm that struck the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes from Wednesday, January 25 through Friday, January 27, 1978. The 28.28 inches (958 millibars) barometric pressure measurement recorded in Cleveland, Ohio was the lowest non-tropical atmospheric pressure ever recorded in the mainland United States until the Upper Midwest Storm of October 26, 2010 (28.20" measured at 5:13PM CDT at Bigfork Municipal Airport, Bigfork, MN). The lowest central pressure for the 1978 blizzard was 28.05" (953 mb) measured in southern Ontario a few hours after the aforementioned record in Cleveland. On rare occasions, extra-tropical cyclones with central pressures below 28 inches of mercury or about 95 kPa (950 mb) have been recorded in Wiscasset, Maine (27.9") and Newfoundland (27.76").

Read more about this at

Blizzard of 1977

The Blizzard of 1977 was a deadly blizzard that hit upstate New York and Southern Ontario from January 28 to February 1, 1977. Daily peak wind gusts ranging from 46 to 69 mph (74 to 111 km/h) were recorded by the National Weather Service Buffalo Office.

Certain pre-existing weather conditions exacerbated the blizzard's effects. November, December and January average temperatures were much below normal. Lake Erie froze over by December 14; an ice-covered Lake Erie usually puts an end to lake-effect snow because the wind cannot pick up moisture from the lake's surface, convert the moisture to snow and then dump it when the winds reach shore.

Lake Erie was covered by a deep, powdery snow; January's unusually cold conditions limited the usual thawing and refreezing, so the snow on the frozen lake remained powdery. The drifted snow on roadways was difficult to clear because the strong wind packed the snow solidly. In addition to the roads becoming impassable, motorists had to deal with vehicles breaking down due to the combination of very cold temperatures, very high winds and blowing snow.

In the hardest-struck areas, snowmobiles became the only viable method of transportation. In western New York and southern Ontario, snow which was accumulated on frozen Lake Erie and snow on the ground at the start of the blizzard provided ample material for the high winds to blow into huge drifts – see ground blizzard. The combination of bitter cold, high winds, and blowing snow paralyzed areas affected by the storm. Lake Ontario does not freeze over, which meant northern New York had to deal with considerable lake effect snow, which, when coupled with the existing snow cover and wind, created paralysis.

Read more about this at

Great Storm of 1975

The Great Storm of 1975 (also known as the Super Bowl Blizzard, Minnesota's Storm of the Century, or the Tornado Outbreak of January, 1975) was an intense storm system that impacted a large portion of the Central and Southeast United States from January 9 to January 12, 1975. The storm produced 45 tornadoes in the Southeast U.S. resulting in 12 fatalities, while later dropping over 2 feet (61 cm) of snow and killing 58 people in the Midwest. This storm remains one of the worst blizzards to ever strike parts of the Midwest, as well as one of the largest January tornado outbreaks on record in the United States.

Read more about this at

February 1969 Nor'Easter

The February 1969 nor'easter was a severe winter storm that affected the Mid-Atlantic and New England regions of the United States between February 8 and February 10. It ranked as Category 2, or "significant", on the Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale. The nor'easter developed on February 9, and as it moved towards the northeast, intensifying to become a powerful storm, it dropped paralyzing snowfall, often exceeding 20 in (51 cm). New York City bore the brunt of the storm, suffering extensive disruption. Thousands of travelers became stranded on roads and in airports. Overall, at least 94 people lost their lives to the storm. Following the event, the mayor of New York, John Lindsay, was criticized for failing to respond to the snowstorm adequately. Some areas of the city remained uncleared a week after the storm, and schools were closed for several days.

Read more about this at'easter

Chicago Blizzard of 1967

The Chicago Blizzard of 1967 struck northeast Illinois and northwest Indiana on January 26, 1967 with a record-setting 23 inches (58 cm) of snow falling on Chicago and its suburbs before the storm abated the next morning. To this day, it is the worst blizzard in Chicago history.

The snow fell continuously on Chicago from 5:02 am on Thursday, January 26 until 10:10 am Friday when 23 inches had fallen. The storm played havoc with commuters, stranding thousands of people and leaving an estimated 800 Chicago Transit Authority busses and 50,000 automobiles abandoned on the city streets and expressways. Incidents of looting took place: in one incident, a ten year old girl was fatally wounded when she was caught in a gun battle between police and looters. In another incident, a man died after being run over by a snowplow. Altogether, 26 Chicagoans lost their lives in the blizzard, many from heart attacks brought on by shoveling snow. There were over 50 storm-related deaths in the metropolitan area.

The blizzard closed both Midway Airport and O'Hare Airport. Ten-foot drifts covered the runways at Midway. Thousands of travelers and airport workers were stuck in the terminals by the storm. Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley ordered city workers to clear streets around the clock and asked citizens for help. On Friday, the city was virtually shut down and area schools closed.

On Tuesday, January 24 the high had been an unseasonably warm 65° F. But the temperature started falling the next day. The Chicago area started to recover from the extreme snowfall over the weekend, then it snowed four more inches on Wednesday, February 1. The following Sunday, February 5, another storm dumped ten inches. The 23 inches of snow that fell on Chicago on the 26th and 27th is a record for a single storm. The 19.8 inches (50.3 cm) that fell on January 26-27 is the greatest amount of snow for a 24-hour period. The single day record of 16.4 inches (41.7 cm) for January 26 was later broken by the Chicago Blizzard of 1979 when 16.5 inches (41.9 cm) fell. Between January 26 and February 5, 36.5 inches (92.7 cm) of snow fell, which is typical for an entire Chicago winter. Gusts of up to 53 miles per hour caused large snowdrifts to accumulate.

Read more about this at

Chicago Blizzard of 1966

The Blizzard of 1966 is to date the most famous blizzard to hit Oswego, New York, and held the record for the most snowfall in a single storm in Oswego until the Lake Effect snow storm of February 2007.

It began as a nor'easter which affected the New York City metro area and was followed by heavy "wraparound" lake effect snows. Winds were more than 60 mph. during the storm and at Fair Haven, New York they are believed to have exceeded 100 mph. The snow was badly drifted and roads and schools closed as long as a week. Drifts covered entire 2 story houses.

A total of 103" of snow was recorded at Oswego, 50" of this falling on the last day of the storm alone. 50" of snow were also recorded at Camden, New York on the same day. The last day of the blizzard the winds subsided and snowburst conditions prevailed, with the snow falling straight down. Fair Haven did not have official snowfall records at the time, but state troopers reported measuring 100" of snow on the level, where none had been prior to the storm. Syracuse, New York received a record snowfall of 42.3" which remained their heaviest storm on record, until the Blizzard of 1993.

Read more about this at

Great Appalachian Storm of November 1950

The Great Appalachian Storm of November 1950 was a large extratropical cyclone which moved through the Eastern United States, causing significant winds, heavy rains east of the Appalachians, and blizzard conditions along the western slopes of the mountain chain. Hurricane-force winds, peaking at 110 miles per hour (180 km/h) in Concord, New Hampshire and 160 miles per hour (260 km/h) in the New England highlands, disrupted power to 1,000,000 customers during the event. In all, the storm impacted 22 states, killing 353, and creating US$66.7 million in damage (1950 dollars). At the time, U.S. insurance companies paid more money out to their policy holders for damage resulting from this cyclone than for any other previous storm or hurricane.

Read more about this at

North American Blizzard of 1947

The Great Blizzard of 1947 was a record-breaking snowfall that began on Christmas without prediction and brought the northeastern United States to a standstill. The snowstorm was described as the worst blizzard after 1888.[1] The storm was not accompanied by high winds, but the snow fell silently and steadily. By the time it stopped on December 26, measurement of the snowfall reached 26.4 inches (67.1 cm) in Central Park in Manhattan. Meteorological records indicate that warm moisture arising from the Gulf Stream fed the storm's energy when it encountered its cold air and greatly increased the precipitation. Automobiles and buses were stranded in the streets, subway service was halted, and parked vehicles initially buried by the snowfall were blocked further by packed mounds created by snow plows once they were able to begin operation. Once trains resumed running, they ran twelve hours late. Seventy-seven deaths are attributed to the blizzard.

Drifts exceeded ten feet and finding places to place snow from plowing became problematic, creating snow piles that exceeded twelve feet. In Manhattan some of the snow was dumped into the sewers, where it melted in the warm waste water flowing to the rivers. When possible it was dumped directly into the Hudson River and the East River. Most suburban areas did not have such nearby alternatives to stacking the snow up. Low temperatures that winter led to the snowfall remaining on the ground until March of the next year.

Communities in New Jersey among the Watchung Mountains and beyond, received the same or greater snowfall depths that created similar problems, which became threatening because trucks that carried coal to heat the majority of homes could not be dispatched to replenish diminishing supplies. Food supplies ran low and resourcefulness in moving people to alternative shelter and distribution of supplies became essential. Communities with central gas connections for heating provided havens for those who could reach those homes and facilities. Although many homes in the region had fireplaces, few had generous supplies of wood because fireplaces only were used occasionally.

Connecticut and upstate New York were affected as well as most of the Mid-Atlantic region.

With no weather reports generated from stations along its path, the storm was not predicted and it advanced over land from the Atlantic Ocean in a pattern that is the opposite of most snowstorms for the area.

This snowstorm arrived without advance warning because weather patterns for the northeastern United States generally flow from the west to the east following the prevailing winds. Numerous weather stations along that typical path provide reports that are used for predictions in advance of storms moving eastward. There are no weather stations in the Atlantic Ocean. This storm progressed westward and affected the Great Plains shortly afterward, but the effect of moisture from the Gulf Stream feeding the volume of snow lessened as the distance from the warm water flow increased.

Read more about this at

Armistice Day Blizzard of 1940

The Armistice Day Blizzard (or the Armistice Day Storm) took place in the Midwest region of the United States on 11 November (Armistice Day) and 12 November 1940. The intense early-season "Panhandle hook" winter storm cut a 1,000-mile-wide (1600 km) path through the middle of the country from Kansas to Michigan.

Read more about this at

Knickerbocker Storm of 1922

The Knickerbocker Storm was a blizzard that occurred on January 27–28, 1922 in the upper South and middle Atlantic United States. The storm took its name from the resulting collapse of the Knickerbocker Theatre in Washington, D.C. shortly after 9 p.m. on January 28 which killed 98 people and injured 133.

Read more about this at

1920 North Dakota blizzard

The 1920 North Dakota blizzard was a severe blizzard that killed 34 people from March 15 – March 18, 1920 in the state of North Dakota. High winds and an eight-inch snowfall stopped rail service in Bismarck, North Dakota and only one telephone line functioned between Fargo, North Dakota. and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Telephone service was out between Devils Lake, North Dakota and Fargo, North Dakota. It is considered one of the worst blizzards on record in North Dakota.

Among the victims were five country school students, including Hazel Miner and Adolph, Ernest, Soren, and Herman Wohlk. Also killed were a young mother, Mrs. Andrew Whitehead, Charles Hutchins, north of Douglas, North Dakota; the twelve-year-old son of Matt Yashenko, who lived five miles south of Ruso, North Dakota; and "Chicken Pete" Johnson, a Minot eccentric, who was found dead in his dug-out on South Hill in Minot, North Dakota.

Read more about this at

Great Lakes Storm of 1913

The Great Lakes Storm of 1913, historically referred to as the "Big Blow", the "Freshwater Fury", or the "White Hurricane", was a blizzard with hurricane-force winds that devastated the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwestern United States and the Canadian province of Ontario from November 7 through November 10, 1913. The storm was most powerful on November 9, battering and overturning ships on four of the five Great Lakes, particularly Lake Huron. Deceptive lulls in the storm and the slow pace of weather reports contributed to the storm's destructiveness.

The deadliest and most destructive natural disaster ever to hit the lakes, the Great Lakes Storm killed more than 250 people, destroyed 19 ships, and stranded 19 others. The financial loss in vessels alone was nearly US $5 million, or about $100 million at current value. This included about $1 million at current value in lost cargo totalling about 68,300 tons, such as coal, iron ore, and grain.

The storm, an extratropical cyclone, originated as the convergence of two major storm fronts, fueled by the lakes' relatively warm waters—a seasonal process called a "November gale". It produced 90 mph (145 km/h) wind gusts, waves over 35 feet (11 m) high, and whiteout snowsqualls. Analysis of the storm and its impact on humans, engineering structures, and the landscape led to better forecasting and faster responses to storm warnings, stronger construction (especially of marine vessels), and improved preparedness.

Read more about this at

Great Blizzard of 1899

The Great Blizzard of 1899 was an unprecedented winter weather event that affected the southern United States. What made it historic was both the severity of winter weather and the extent of the U.S. it affected, especially in the South. The first reports indicated record-high barometric pressure over Assiniboia (now Saskatchewan) due to the weight of the extremely cold and dense air. Later reports of the impending freeze were relayed down through Florida by the Florida East Coast Railway.

Read more about this at

Great Blizzard of 1888

The Great Blizzard of 1888 or Great Blizzard of '88 (March 11 – March 14, 1888) was one of the most severe recorded blizzards in the history of the United States. Snowfalls of 40-50 inches (102–127 cm) fell in parts of New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut, and sustained winds of more than 45 miles per hour (72 km/h) produced snowdrifts in excess of 50 feet (15.2 m). Railroads were shut down and people were confined to their houses for up to a week.

Read more about this at

Schoolhouse Blizzard of 1888

The Schoolhouse Blizzard, also known as the Schoolchildren's Blizzard, School Children's Blizzard, or Children's Blizzard, hit the U.S. plains states on January 12, 1888. The blizzard came unexpectedly on a relatively warm day, and many people were caught unaware, including children in one-room schoolhouses.

Read more about this at